High refractive index (RI) thin films are of critical importance for advanced optical devices, and the high refractive index polymers (HRIPs) constitute an interesting class of materials for high RI thin films due to low cost, good processability, light weight, and high flexibility. However, HRIPs have yet to realize their full potential in high RI thin film applications due to their relatively low RI, strong absorption in the blue light region, and limited film formation methods such as rapid vitrification. Herein, we report a development of a new HRIP thin film generated through a one-step vapor-phase process, termed sulfur chemical vapor deposition (sCVD), using elemental sulfur and divinyl benzene. The developed poly(sulfur-co-divinyl benzene) (pSDVB-sCVD) film exhibited RI (measured at 632.8 nm) exceeding 1.97, one of the highest RIs among polymers without metallic elements reported to date. Because the sCVD utilized vaporized sulfur with a unique sulfur-cracking step, formation of long polysulfide chains was suppressed efficiently, while high sulfur content as high as 85 wt % could be achieved with no apparent phase separation. Unlike most of inorganic high RI materials, pSDVB-sCVD was highly transparent in the entire visible range and showed extremely low birefringence of 10 × 10–4. The HRIP thin film with unprecedentedly high RI, together with outstanding transparency and low birefringence, will serve as a key component in a wide range of high-end optical device applications.