A variety of sensor systems have been developed to monitor the structural health status of buildings and infrastructures. However, most sensor systems for structural health monitoring (SHM) are difficult to use in extreme conditions, such as a fire situation, because of their vulnerability to high temperature and physical shocks, as well as time-consuming installation process. Here, we present a smart ball sensor (SBS) that can be immediately installed on surfaces of structures, stably measure vital SHM data in real time and wirelessly transmit the data in a high-temperature fire situation. The smart ball sensor mainly consists of sensor and data transmission module, heat insulator and adhesive module. With the integrated device configuration, the SBS can be strongly attached to the target surface with maximum adhesion force of 233.7-N and stably detect acceleration and temperature of the structure without damaging the key modules of the systems even at high temperatures of up to 500 degrees C while ensuring wireless transmission of the data. Field tests for a model pre-engineered building (PEB) structure demonstrate the validity of the smart ball sensor as an instantly deployable, high-temperature SHM system. This SBS can be used for SHM of a wider variety of structures and buildings beyond PEB structures.