To mathematically predict the behavior of a forward osmosis (FO) process for water recovery, a model was constructed using an asymmetric membrane and glucose as a draw solution, allowing an examination of both phenomenological and process aspects. It was found that the proposed model adequately described the significant physicochemical phenomena that occur in the FO system, including forward water flux, internal concentration polarization (ICP), external concentration polarization (ECP), and reverse solute diffusion (RSD). Model parameters, namely the physiochemical properties of the FO membrane and glucose solutions, were estimated on the basis of experimental and existing data. Through batch FO operations with the estimated parameters, the model was verified. In addition, the influences of ECP and ICP on the water flux of the FO system were investigated at different solute concentrations. Water flux simulation results, which exhibited good agreement with the experimental data, confirmed that ICP, ECP, and RSD had a real impact on water flux and thus must be taken into account in the FO process. With the Latin-hypercube-one-factor-at-a-time (LH-OAT) method, the sensitivity index of diffusivity was at its highest, with a value of more than 40%, which means that diffusivity is the most influential parameter for water flux of the FO system, in particular when dealing with a high-salinity solution. Based on the developed model and sensitivity analysis, the simulation results provide insight into how mass transport affects the performance of an FO system.