Washing and enrichment of particles and cells are crucial sample preparation procedures in biomedical and biochemical assays. On-chip in-droplet microparticle washing and enrichment have been pursued but remained problematic due to technical difficulties, especially simultaneous and precise control over the droplet interface and in-droplet samples. Here, we have achieved a breakthrough in label-free, continuous, on-demand, in-droplet microparticle washing and enrichment using surface acoustic waves. When exposed to the acoustic field, the droplet and suspended particles experience acoustic radiation force arising from inhomogeneous wave scattering at the liquid/liquid and liquid/solid interfaces. Based on these acoustophoretic phenomena, we have demonstrated in-droplet microparticle washing and enrichment in an acoustofluidic device. We expect that the proposed acoustic method will offer new perspectives to sample washing and enrichment by performing the operation in microscale droplets.