A biodegradable amphiphilic pentablock copolymer PAE-PCL-PEG-PCL-PAE with a pH-sensitive unit was synthesized for use as a nontoxic, biodegradable carrier for gene delivery by forming nanocapsules entrapping nucleic acid drugs. The PAE block can interact with plasmid DNA to form polyelectrolyte complexes in an acidic environment. At physiological pH, the PAE blocks are deprotonated and form an insoluble skin, resulting in the formation of nanocapsules that encapsulate plasmid DNA. The surface charges of the nanocapsules became almost neutral at pH = 7.4, and their size ranged from 210 to 280 nm. The nanocapsule maintained most of its transfection efficiency even in the presence of serum. These nanocapsules are therefore potential carriers for systemic gene therapy.