We have developed a transgenic female goat harboring goat beta-casein promoter/human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) fusion gene by microinjection into fertilized one-cell goat zygotes. Human G-CSF was produced at levels of up to 50 mu g/ml in transgenic goat milk. Its biological activity was equivalent to recombinant human G-CSF expressed from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell when assayed using in vitro HL-60 cell proliferation. Human G-CSF from transgenic goat milk increased the total number of white blood cells in C57BL/6N mice with leucopenia induced by cyclophosphamide (CPA). The secreted human G-CSF was glycosylated although the degree of O-glycosylation was lower compared to CHO cell-derived human G-CSF.