Novel allele-dependent role for APOE in controlling the rate of synapse pruning by astrocytes

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The strongest genetic risk factor influencing susceptibility to lateonset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. APOE has three common isoforms in humans, E2, E3, and E4. The presence of two copies of the E4 allele increases risk by similar to 12-fold whereas E2 allele is associated with an similar to twofold decreased risk for AD. These data put APOE central to AD pathophysiology, but it is not yet clear how APOE alleles modify AD risk. Recently we found that astrocytes, a major central nervous system cell type that produces APOE, are highly phagocytic and participate in normal synapse pruning and turnover. Here, we report a novel role for APOE in controlling the phagocytic capacity of astrocytes that is highly dependent on APOE isoform. APOE2 enhances the rate of phagocytosis of synapses by astrocytes, whereas APO4 decreases it. We also found that the amount of C1q protein accumulation in hippocampus, which may represent the accumulation of senescent synapses with enhanced vulnerability to complement-mediated degeneration, is highly dependent on APOE alleles: C1q accumulation was significantly reduced in APOE2 knock-in (KI) animals and was significantly increased in APOE4 KI animals compared with APOE3 KI animals. These studies reveal a novel allele-dependent role for APOE in regulating the rate of synapse pruning by astrocytes. They also suggest the hypothesis that AD susceptibility of APOE4 may originate in part from defective phagocytic capacity of astrocytes which accelerates the rate of accumulation of C1q-coated senescent synapses, enhancing synaptic vulnerability to classical-complement-cascade mediated neurodegeneration
Publisher
NATL ACAD SCIENCES
Issue Date
2016-09
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

ISOFORM-SPECIFIC BINDING; HUMAN APOLIPOPROTEIN-E; ALZHEIMERS-DISEASE; MOUSE MODEL; IN-VIVO; LDL RECEPTOR; MICE; PHAGOCYTOSIS; COMPLEMENT; PROTEIN

Citation

PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, v.113, no.36, pp.10186 - 10191

ISSN
0027-8424
DOI
10.1073/pnas.1609896113
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/213500
Appears in Collection
BS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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