A self-assembly fabrication method was developed for the preparation of microlens arrays (MLAs). The procedure used the focal conic structures of semi-fluorinated smectic liquid crystals (LCs), the periodic toric focal conic domains (TFCDs), which were prepared on a surface-modified substrate. This LC-based MLA system focuses light via the intrinsic molecular orientations of the TFCDs, leading to a highly efficient MLA with good optical properties. The thickness of the smectic LC film could be used to control both the microlens feature size, over the range 5-15 mu m, and the microlens focal length, over the range 1-3 mu m. In addition, we prepared two-dimensional hexagonally packed polymer MLAs with conical or dimple shapes by successive replica molding, using a UV-curable photopolymer (NOA63) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), from a TFCD array template containing a dimple structure. The LC-based TFCD MLAs and the secondary replicated polymer MLAs, using NOA63 and PDMS molds, showed good lens performances. We anticipate that this LC self-assembly method will be applicable to the large-scale fabrication of MLAs. The method allows fabrication of dynamic MLAs that are responsive to external fields, such as electric or magnetic fields, or to thermal variations.