A modified parallel IWAN model, which includes a cyclic hardening function, is proposed and verified. The proposed model consists of elasto-perfect plastic and isotropic hardening elements. The model is able to predict cyclic hardening behavior through the adjustment of the internal slip stresses of its elements beyond the cyclic threshold, and satisfies Bauschinger's effect and the Masing rule with its own behavior characteristics. The cyclic hardening function is developed based on the irrecoverable plastic strain (accumulated shear strain) of dry sand during shearing, which is assumed to be a summation of shear strain beyond the cyclic threshold. Symmetric-limit cyclic loading and irregular loading tests were performed to determine model parameters and to verify the behavior of the proposed model. Finally, a one-dimensional site response analysis program (KODSAP) is developed by using the proposed model. The effects of cyclic hardening behavior on site response are evaluated using KODSAP. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.