Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) describes a synergistic relationship among all organizational functions, but particularly between production and maintenance, for continuous improvement of product quality, operational efficiency, capacity assurance, and safety. This article provides the key factors that are critical to the successful implementation of TPM. It is thus crucial to provide and discuss those factors for more effective TPM implementation. Also, this study explores the impact of TPM on the competitiveness of the company. This research concludes that long-term benefits of TPM are the result of considerable investment in human resource development and management. For TPM practitioners, we advise to build a supportive culture and environment with a strong emphasis on human and organizational aspects to promote effective TPM implementation. (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.