This paper proposes a new method of estimating the position and heading angle of a mobile robot moving on a flat surface. The proposed localization method utilizes two passive beacons and a single rotating ultrasonic sensor. The passive beacons consist of two cylinders with different diameters and reflect the ultrasonic pulses coming from the sonar sensor mounted on the mobile robot. The sonar sensor, again, mounted on a pan-tilt device then receives the reflected pulses while scanning over a wide area. The geometric parameter set of beacon is acquired from the sonar scan data obtained at a single mobile robot location using a new data processing algorithm. The presented algorithm is especially suitable for processing the sonar scan data obtained by ultrasonic sensor with wide beam spread. From this parameter set, the position and heading angle of the mobile robot is determined directly. The performance and validity of the proposed method are evaluated using two beacons and a single sonar sensor attached at the pan-tilt device mounted on a mobile robot, named LCAR, in our laboratory.