Revisiting carbazole-based polymer donors for efficient and thermally stable polymer solar cells: structural utility of coplanar pi-bridged spacers

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For the realization of highly efficient and thermally stable polymer solar cells (PSCs), we develop a new series of polymer donors (P(D)s) containing carbazole (Cz)-based units, N-dodecyl-carbazole[3,4-c:5,6-c]bis[1,2,5]-thiadiazole (CBT). The coplanar penta-fused-ring structures of the CBT units coupled with pi-conjugated bridges (thiophene (T) or thienothiophene (TT)) exhibit highly planar P-D conformations that are non-covalently locked by secondary interactions. As a result, the series of P(D)s (i.e., P1, P2, and P3) exhibit superior electrical and photovoltaic properties. In particular, the TT-pi-bridged P(D)s, P2 and P3, achieve high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 13.17 and 14.58% when paired with Y6 acceptor, respectively, which outperform the T-pi-bridged P-D, P1 (10.78%). This result is attributed to the compact intermolecular packing, enhanced crystallinity, and extended conjugation of the P(D)s featuring TT. Furthermore, an even higher PCE of 15.54% is achieved by a P3-based ternary (P3:Y6:PC71BM) blend system. This PCE represents the highest among the PCEs of previously reported PSCs featuring Cz-based P(D)s. In addition, the P3:Y6 blend shows excellent thermal stability by maintaining 90% of its initial PCE after 144 h at 120 degrees C. Therefore, this study provides important molecular design rules for developing Cz-based P(D)s and realizing high-performance and thermally stable PSCs.
Publisher
ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY
Issue Date
2022-05
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Citation

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, v.10, no.17, pp.9408 - 9418

ISSN
2050-7488
DOI
10.1039/d2ta00145d
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/296467
Appears in Collection
CBE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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