Towards Watt-scale hydroelectric energy harvesting by Ti3C2Tx-based transpiration-driven electrokinetic power generators

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Nano-hydroelectric technology utilizes hydraulic flow through electronically conducting nanomaterials to generate electricity in a simple, renewable, ubiquitous, and environmentally friendly manner. To date, several designs of nano-hydroelectric devices have been devised to maximize the electrokinetic interactions between water molecules and nanomaterials. However, the reported power generation of the state-of-the-art nano-hydroelectric generators is not sufficient for practical use, as tens of thousands of units were required to operate low-power electronics on a mW scale. Here, we utilize titanium carbide (Ti3C2Tx) MXene nanosheets, which have advantageous properties including metal-like conductivity and hydrophilicity, to facilitate the electrokinetic conversion of the transpiration-driven electrokinetic power generator (TEPG) with a remarkably improved energy generation efficiency compared to that of carbon-based TEPG. The Ti3C2Tx MXene-based TEPG delivered a high pseudo-streaming current of 120 mu A by the fast capillary flow promoted by MXene sheets coated on cotton fabric. The strong cationic affinity of Ti3C2Tx enables the generator to achieve an output of 0.68 V and 2.73 mA when NaCl solution is applied. Moreover, incorporation of a conducting polymer (i.e., Ti3C2Tx/polyaniline composite) enhanced the ionic diffusivity while maintaining the electrical network of Ti3C2Tx. The optimized Ti3C2Tx/polyaniline composite TEPG generated a maximum voltage of 0.54 V, a current of 8.2 mA, and a specific power density of 30.9 mW cm(-3), which was sufficient to successfully charge a commercial Li-ion battery as well as low-power electronics and devices with a volume of 6.72 cm(3).
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ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, v.15, no.1, pp.123 - 135

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MS-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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