All vessels operating in a marine environment are required to comply with the international regulations for preventing collisions at sea (COLREGs), which provide the guidelines and evasive procedures required to resolve potential conflicts between vessels. However, not all vessels strictly abide by COLREGs, often leading to dangerous situations. This paper presents a novel approach for robust collision avoidance in encounter situations involving COLREG-violating vessels. A probabilistic velocity obstacle algorithm based on intent inference is designed and implemented with consideration of the tradeoff between the adherence to traffic rules and the proactive evasive actions for safety. One-to-one and multi-ship encounter situations in the presence of rule-violating vessels are examined through Monte-Carlo simulations, and the results are discussed to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed approach.