Solid-state nanopore (SSNP) or synthetic nanopore using semiconductor materials have established themselves as a single molecule bio-detection platform. Although biological nanopore with fixed dimension has been successfully utilized for many sensing applications, SSNP has unique characteristics of distinctly potent geometries and relaxation of modification. The most common method of molecular detection is to measure the temporal variations of the ionic current in the pore. In this review, the principles of the SSNP and the improvement of device performance for the molecular detection platform are discussed elaborately. Moreover, different experimental aspects of the SSNP are discussed in detail. For instance, the enhancement of spatial resolution, modification of temporal resolution with the difficulties of its analyte-detection, as well as reduction of the electrical noise for the improvement of device sensing functionalities, all are addressed in designated chapters for better conception. In addition, the typical and updated applications of SSNP including DNA, protein and virus are briefly discussed. Finally, this article offers the context needed to comprehend current research trends and promote molecular sensing through synthetic nanopores.