An Energy-Efficient GAN Accelerator With On-Chip Training for Domain-Specific Optimization

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Generative adversarial networks (GANs) consist of multiple deep neural networks cooperating and competing with each other. Due to their complex architectures and large feature map sizes, training GANs requires a huge amount of computations. Moreover, instance normalization (IN) layers in GANs dramatically increase the external memory access (EMA). However, retraining GANs with user-specific data is critical on mobile devices because the pre-trained model outputs distorted images under user-specific conditions. This article proposes a GAN training accelerator to enable energy-efficient domain-specific optimization of GAN with user's local data. Selective layer retraining (SELRET) picks out layers that are effective in enhancing the quality of the retrained model. Without image quality degradation, the SELRET reduces the required computation by 69%. Moreover, reordering layers for instance normalization (ROLIN) is proposed to reduce the EMA of intermediate data. Through the implementation of the proposed architecture, which splits and reorders the IN layers, 38.7% and 32.2% of overall EMA reduction are achieved in the forward propagation (FP) stage and the error propagation (EP) stage, respectively. The proposed processor is fabricated in a 65-nm CMOS process, showing 0.38-TFLOPS/W energy efficiency. The chip can retrain a face modification GAN with a custom dataset of 256 x 256 images over 100 epochs under 30 s while only consuming 274 mW. Compared to the previous FPGA implementation, this work improved the retraining performance and energy efficiency by 2x and 39x, respectively. As a result, the proposed accelerator enables GAN's domain-specific optimization on a mobile platform.
Publisher
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC
Issue Date
2021-10
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Citation

IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, v.56, no.10, pp.2968 - 2980

ISSN
0018-9200
DOI
10.1109/JSSC.2021.3094469
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/287997
Appears in Collection
EE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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