Patient-friendly medical diagnostics and treatments have been receiving a great deal of interest due to their rapid and cost-effective health care applications with minimized risk of infection, which has the potential to replace conventional hospital-based medical procedures. In particular, the integration of recently developed materials into health care devices allows the rapid development of point-of-care (POC) sensing platforms and implantable devices with special functionalities. In this review, the recent advances in biosensors for patient-friendly diagnosis and implantable devices for patient-friendly treatment are discussed. Comprehensive analysis of portable and wearable biosensing platforms for patient-friendly health monitoring and disease diagnosis is provided, including topics such as materials selection, device structure and integration, and biomarker detection strategies. Moreover, specific challenges related to each biological fluid for wearable biosensor-based POC applications are presented. Also, advances in implantable devices, including recent materials development and wireless communication strategies, are discussed. Furthermore, various patient-friendly surgical and treatment approaches are reviewed, such as minimally invasive insertion and mounting, in vivo electrical and optical modulations, and post-operation health monitoring. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives toward the development of the patient-friendly diagnosis and treatment are provided.