Synechocystis strains are cyanobacteria that can produce useful biomaterials for biofuel and pharmaceutical resources. In this study, the effects of exogenous glucose (5-mM) on cell growth, photosynthetic pigments, metabolites, and lipids in Synechocystis sp. PCC 7338 (referred to as Synechocystis 7338) were investigated. Exogenous glucose increased cell growth on days 9 and 18. The highest production (mg/L) of chlorophyll a (34.66), phycocyanin (84.94), allophycocyanin (34.28), and phycoerythrin (6.90) was observed on day 18 in Synechocystis 7338 culture under 5-mM glucose. Alterations in metabolic and lipidomic profiles under 5-mM glucose were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and nanoelectrospray ionization-MS. The highest production (relative intensity/L) of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycerol-3-phosphate, linolenic acid, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) 16:0/18:1, MGDG 16:0/20:2, MGDG 18:1/18:2, neophytadiene, oleic acid, phosphatidylglycerol (PG) 16:0/16:0, and PG 16:0/17:2 was achieved on day 9. The highest production of pyroglutamic acid and sucrose was observed on day 18. We suggest that the addition of exogenous glucose to Synechocystis 7338 culture could be an efficient strategy for improving growth of cells and production of photosynthetic pigments, metabolites, and intact lipid species for industrial applications.