Spatially patterned dielectric materials are ubiquitous in electronic, photonic, and optoelectronic devices. These patterns are typically made by subtractive or additive approaches utilizing vapor-phase reagents. On the other hand, recent advances in solution-phase synthesis of oxide nanomaterials have unlocked a materials library with greater compositional, microstructural, and interfacial tunability. However, methods to pattern and integrate these nanomaterials in real-world devices are less established. In this work, we directly optically pattern oxide nanoparticles (NPs) by mixing them with photosensitive diazo-2-naphthol-4-sulfonic acid and irradiating with widely available 405 nm light. We demonstrate the direct optical lithography of ZrO2, TiO2, HfO2, and ITO NPs and investigate the chemical and physical changes responsible for this photoinduced decrease in solubility. Micron-thick layers of amorphous ZrO2 NPs were patterned with micron resolution and shown to allow 2π phase control of visible light. We also show multilayer patterning and use it to fabricate features with different thicknesses and distinct structural colors. Upon annealing at 400 °C, the deposited ZrO2 structures have excellent optical transparency across a wide wavelength range (0.3–10 μm), a high refractive index (n = 1.84 at 633 nm), and are optically smooth. We then fabricate diffractive optical elements, such as binary phase diffraction gratings, that show efficient diffractive behavior and good thermal stability. Different oxide NPs can also be mixed prior to patterning, providing a high level of material tunability. This work demonstrates a general patterning approach that harnesses the processability and diversity of colloidal oxide nanomaterials for use in photonic applications.