Cyanobacteria, given their ability to produce various secondary metabolites utilizing solar energy and carbon dioxide, are a potential platform for sustainable production of biochemicals. Until now, conventional metabolic engineering approaches have been applied to various cyanobacterial species for enhanced production of industrially valued compounds, including secondary metabolites and non-natural biochemicals. However, the shortage of understanding of cyanobacterial metabolic and regulatory networks for atmospheric carbon fixation to biochemical production and the lack of available engineering tools limit the potential of cyanobacteria for industrial applications. Recently, to overcome the limitations, synthetic biology tools and systems biology approaches such as genome-scale modeling based on diverse omics data have been applied to cyanobacteria. This review covers the synthetic and systems biology approaches for advanced metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria.