Parabens are alkyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which is derived from a family of synthetic esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Among all the kinds of paraben, two parabens (methyl paraben, MP; and npropyl paraben, PP) are the most generally used as preservatives in personal care products, such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food also, and are often presented together. However, a number of studies have reported that the toxicity of parabens affects the water environment, and human as well. This study utilized M13 phage display technology to provide easy, efficient, and relatively inexpensive methods to identify peptides that bind to MP and PP, respectively, to remove in wastewater. At first, biopanning was performed, to sort MP and PP specific binding phages, and three cases of experiment, including negative control (NC), which could sort unspecific binding phage, were conducted at the same time. Phage binding affinity tests were substituted by concentration reduction using antibody conjugated magnetic beads, and paraben concentration was measured by HPLC. Analysis showed that the MP concentration reduction of 38% was the highest in M4 phage, while the PP concentration reduction of 44% was the highest in P3 phage. We successfully screened two peptides specific to MP and PP, namely, MP4 and PP3, respectively; the results showed that the MP concentration reduction in MP4 was the highest at 44%, and the PP concentration reduction in PP3 was the highest at 39%, and their specificity was measured by the capture rate between target and control. In conclusion, the phage display technique shows applicability to the removal of parabens in water; furthermore, it also shows the possibility of the detection or removal of other chemicals.