In this work, iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanoparticle-doped expanded graphite (IO/EG-1 and IO/EG-2) was prepared via a hydrothermal reaction and applied for the phosphorus adsorption in the aqueous solutions. The analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) verified the successful fabrication of IO/EGs, and iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanoparticles became more crystalized according to the calcination at high temperature (IO/EG-2). The maximum adsorption capacity of IO/EG-1 was considerably higher (7.30 mg/g) than that of IO/EG-2 (0.70 mg/g) mainly due to the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged phosphate ions with iron (oxyhydr)oxides. At the neutral pH, IO/EG-1 exhibited more positively charged than IO/EG-2, which the iso-electric points (IEP) were pH of 9.1 and 6.0, respectively. The thermodynamic study also suggested that the phosphorus adsorption energy of IO/EG-1was considerably favorable (-12.13 kJ/mol) than that of IO/EG-2 (-7.43 kJ/mol). The regeneration of IO/EG-1 were efficiently achieved by a simple extraction using an alkaline solution such as NaOH. Overall, our study suggested that the prepared IO/EGs could be used as good adsorbents for the phosphorus recovery from aqueous solutions.