Microorganisms produce diverse polymers for various purposes such as storing genetic information, energy, and reducing power, and serving as structural materials and scaffolds. Among these polymers, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are microbial polyesters synthesized and accumulated intracellularly as a storage material of carbon, energy, and reducing power under unfavorable growth conditions in the presence of excess carbon source. PHAs have attracted considerable attention for their wide range of applications in industrial and medical fields. Since the first discovery of PHA accumulating bacteria about 100 years ago, remarkable advances have been made in the understanding of PHA biosynthesis and metabolic engineering of microorganisms toward developing efficient PHA producers. Recently, nonnatural polyesters have also been synthesized by metabolically engineered microorganisms, which opened a new avenue toward sustainable production of more diverse plastics. Herein, the current state of PHAs and nonnatural polyesters is reviewed, covering mechanisms of microbial polyester biosynthesis, metabolic pathways, and enzymes involved in biosynthesis of short-chain-length PHAs, medium-chain-length PHAs, and nonnatural polyesters, especially 2-hydroxyacid-containing polyesters, metabolic engineering strategies to produce novel polymers and enhance production capabilities and fermentation, and downstream processing strategies for cost-effective production of these microbial polyesters. In addition, the applications of PHAs and prospects are discussed.