Sectional Information-Based Collision Warning System Using Roadside Unit Aggregated Connected-Vehicle Information for a Cooperative Intelligent Transport System

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Vehicular collision and hazard warning is an active field of research that seeks to improve road safety by providing an earlier warning to drivers to help them avoid potential collision danger. In this study, we propose a new type of a collision warning system based on aggregated sectional information, describing vehicle movement processed by a roadside unit (RSU). The proposed sectional information-based collision warning system (SCWS) overcomes the limitations of existing collision warning systems such as the high installation costs, the need for high market penetration rates, and the lack of consideration of traffic dynamics. The proposed SCWS gathers vehicle operation data through on-board units (OBUs) and shares this aggregated information through an RSU. All the data for each road section are locally processed by the RSU using edge computing, allowing the SCWS to effectively estimate the information describing the vehicles surrounding the subject vehicle in each road section. The performance of the SCWS was evaluated through comparison with other collision warning systems such as the vehicle-to-vehicle communication-based collision warning system (VCWS), which solely uses in-vehicle sensors; the hybrid collision warning system (HCWS), which uses information from both infrastructure and in-vehicle sensors; and the infrastructure-based collision warning system (ICWS), which only uses data from infrastructure. In this study, the VCWS with a 100% market penetration rate was considered to provide the most theoretically similar result to the actual collision risk. The comparison results show that in both aggregation and disaggregation level analyses, the proposed SCWS exhibits a similar collision risk trend to the VCWS. Furthermore, the SCWS shows a high potential for practical application because it provides acceptable performance even with a low market penetration rate (30%) at the relatively low cost of OBU installation, compared to the VCWS requirement of a high market penetration rate at a high installation cost.
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