Perovskite light-emitting diodes have recently broken the 20% barrier for external quantum efficiency. These values cannot be explained with classical models for optical outcoupling. Here, we analyse the role of photon recycling (PR) in assisting light extraction from perovskite light-emitting diodes. Spatially-resolved photoluminescence and electroluminescence measurements combined with optical modelling show that repetitive re-absorption and re-emission of photons trapped in substrate and waveguide modes significantly enhance light extraction when the radiation efficiency is sufficiently high. In this manner, PR can contribute more than 70% to the overall emission, in agreement with recently-reported high efficiencies. While an outcoupling efficiency of 100% is theoretically possible with PR, parasitic absorption losses due to absorption from the electrodes are shown to limit practical efficiencies in current device architectures. To overcome the present limits, we propose a future configuration with a reduced injection electrode area to drive the efficiency toward 100%. Perovskite light-emitting diodes have shown unexpected high external quantum efficiency of 20%, breaking the ray-optics limit. Here Cho et al. reveal that photon recycling is responsible for the enhancement and propose photonic structures to further improve the device efficiency.