Battery-Aware Electric Truck Delivery Route Exploration

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The energy-optimal routing of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the context of parcel delivery is more complicated than for conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles, in which the total travel distance is the most critical metric. The total energy consumption of EV delivery strongly depends on the order of delivery because of transported parcel weight changing over time, which directly affects the battery efficiency. Therefore, it is not suitable to find an optimal routing solution with traditional routing algorithms such as the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), which use a static quantity (e.g., distance) as a metric. In this paper, we explore appropriate metrics considering the varying transported parcel total weight and achieve a solution for the least-energy delivery problem using EVs. We implement an electric truck simulator based on EV powertrain model and nonlinear battery model. We evaluate different metrics to assess their quality on small size instances for which the optimal solution can be computed exhaustively. A greedy algorithm using the empirically best metric (namely, distance x residual weight) provides significant reductions (up to 33%) with respect to a common-sense heaviest first package delivery route determined using a metric suggested by the battery properties. This algorithm also outperforms the state-of-the-art TSP heuristic algorithms, which consumes up to 12.46% more energy and 8.6 times more runtime. We also estimate how the proposed algorithms work well on real roads interconnecting cities located at different altitudes as a case study.
Publisher
MDPI
Issue Date
2020-04
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Citation

ENERGIES, v.13, no.8

ISSN
1996-1073
DOI
10.3390/en13082096
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/275612
Appears in Collection
EE-Journal Papers(저널논문)
Files in This Item
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