Red ginseng has been widely used in health-promoting supplements in Asia and is becoming increasingly popular in Western countries. However, its therapeutic mechanisms against most diseases have not been clearly elucidated. The aim of the present study was to provide the biological mechanisms of red ginseng against various metabolic diseases. We used a systems biological approach to comprehensively identify the component-target and target-pathway networks in order to explore the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic potential of red ginseng against metabolic diseases. Of the 23 components of red ginseng with target, 5 components were linked with 37 target molecules. Systematic analysis of the constructed networks revealed that these 37 targets were mainly involved in 9 signaling pathways relating to immune cell differentiation and vascular health. These results successfully explained the mechanisms underlying the efficiency of red ginseng for metabolic diseases, such as menopausal symptoms in women, blood circulation, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia.