Hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) is an oxygenase which post-translationally hydroxylates proteins and is implicated in a range of biological processes. Here a wide substrate tolerance for FIH is demonstrated, including for d-amino acids, where double hydroxylation of d-leucine is observed. Factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) is a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent protein hydroxylase that catalyses C3 hydroxylations of protein residues. We report FIH can accept (D)- and (L)-residues for hydroxylation. The substrate selectivity of FIH differs for (D) and (L) epimers, e.g., (D)- but not (L)-allylglycine, and conversely (L)- but not (D)-aspartate, undergo monohydroxylation, in the tested sequence context. The (L)-Leu-containing substrate undergoes FIH-catalysed monohydroxylation, whereas (D)-Leu unexpectedly undergoes dihydroxylation. Crystallographic, mass spectrometric, and DFT studies provide insights into the selectivity of FIH towards (L)- and (D)-residues. The results of this work expand the potential range of known substrates hydroxylated by isolated FIH and imply that it will be possible to generate FIH variants with altered selectivities.