Measuring alterations in bacteria upon antibiotic application is important for basic studies in microbiology, drug discovery, clinical diagnosis, and disease treatment. However, imaging and 3D time-lapse response analysis of individual bacteria upon antibiotic application remain largely unexplored mainly due to limitations in imaging techniques. Here, we present a method to systematically investigate the alterations in individual bacteria in 3D and quantitatively analyze the effects of antibiotics. Using optical diffraction tomography, in-situ responses of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis to various concentrations of ampicillin were investigated in a label-free and quantitative manner. The presented method reconstructs the dynamic changes in the 3D refractive-index distributions of living bacteria in response to antibiotics at sub-micrometer spatial resolution.