This study examines the carbon capture, utilization, and storage research performance of 31 countries from the knowledge spillover perspective. Knowledge spillover efficiency—operationally defined as the level of academic and practical influence of research and development outputs—is measured using the output-oriented constant return to scale, variable returns to scale, and super efficiency models using data envelopment analysis. We consider the number of patents and research articles from 2000 to 2016 as input variables, while the number of research article citations, patent citations, and registration of triadic patent families as of 2017 are the three output variables. The samples for measuring efficiency were obtained by collecting patents and research articles using Wintelips and Scopus database, respectively. The results of the super-efficiency data envelopment analysis were used to examine each country’s position in terms of knowledge spillover. More specifically, the US, European countries, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand showed relatively high efficiency, which might be characteristic of their R&D policies and environmental factors. Moreover, the returns to scale analysis provide implications for R&D resource allocation as to whether to encourage the quantitative or qualitative expansion of R&D outputs to improve efficiency. This study can provide meaningful information to policymakers to identify ex post R&D activities and planning.