Changes in microcirculation are believed to perform an important role after cardiac arrest. In particular, rheological changes in red blood cells (RBCs) have been observed during and after ischemic-reperfusion injury. Employing three-dimensional laser interferometric microscopy, we investigated three-dimensional shapes and deformability of RBCs during and after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats at the individual cell level. Rat cardiac arrest was induced by asphyxia. Five rats were maintained for 7 min of no-flow time, and then, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was started. Blood samples were obtained before cardiac arrest, during CPR, and 60 min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) techniques based on laser interferometry were used to measure the three-dimensional refractive index (RI) tomograms of the RBC, from which structural and biochemical properties were retrieved. Dynamic membrane fluctuations in the cell membrane were also quantitatively and sensitively measured in order to investigate cell deformability. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell distribution width remained unchanged during CPR and after ROSC compared with those before cardiac arrest. QPI results revealed that RBC membrane fluctuations, sphericity, and surface area did not change significantly during CPR or after ROSC compared with initial values. In conclusion, no three-dimensional shapes and cell deformability changes in RBCs were detected.