Accurate channel state information (CSI) is essential for attaining beamforming gains in single-user (SU) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and multiplexing gains in multiuser (MU) MIMO wireless communication systems. State-of-the-art limited feedback schemes, which rely on pre-defined code-books for channel quantization, are only appropriate for a small number of transmit antennas and low feedback overhead. In order to scale informed transmitter schemes to emerging massive MIMO systems with a large number of transmit antennas at the base station, one common approach is to employ time division duplexing (TDD) and to exploit the implicit feedback obtained from channel reciprocity. However, most existing cellular deployments are based on frequency division duplexing (FDD), hence it is of great interest to explore backwards compatible massive MIMO upgrades of such systems. For a fixed feedback rate per antenna, the number of codewords for quantizing the channel grows exponentially with the number of antennas, hence generating feedback based on look-up from a standard vector quantized codebook does not scale. In this paper, we propose noncoherent trellis-coded quantization (NTCQ), whose encoding complexity scales linearly with the number of antennas. The approach exploits the duality between source encoding in a Grassmannian manifold (for finding a vector in the codebook which maximizes beamforming gain) and noncoherent sequence detection (for maximum likelihood decoding subject to uncertainty in the channel gain). Furthermore, since noncoherent detection can be realized near-optimally using a bank of coherent detectors, we obtain a low-complexity implementation of NTCQ encoding using an off-the-shelf Viterbi algorithm applied to standard trellis coded quantization. We also develop advanced NTCQ schemes which utilize various channel properties such as temporal/spatial correlations. Monte Carlo simulation results show the proposed NTCQ and its extensions can achieve near-optimal performance with moderate complexity and feedback overhead.