Living organisms, including marine creatures, develop functional tools such as a thread-like material through intra- and intermolecular interactions of phenolic molecules from liquid-state precursors. These phenolic molecules are predominantly applied to develop functional medical devices owing to their strong adhesive characteristic in underwater. However, it has been overlooked that the molecular structure of the phenol-based polymeric structure composed of the repetitive benzoic moieties is similar to that of graphene having excellent in physicochemical properties. These structural properties can be utilized for developing conductive materials that can substitute graphene, which has difficulty in fabrication. In this thesis, we describe chemically identified phenolic molecules found in insects and plants, and demonstrate graphene-like materials established by the carbonization of the phenolic molecules. The developed materials showed particular optical properties at nanoscale, similar to the graphene, and exhibited excellent mechanical and electrical properties at micro- and macroscale.