A series of well-defined poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (PESs) as a rod-type block was synthesized by chain-growth condensation polymerization from a diphenyl sulfone-type initiator containing a fluorine leaving group and an allyl moiety. Interestingly, these oligomeric PESs exhibited lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase transition behavior in organic solvents, i.e., 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and chloroform. The clouding point temperature was affected by the molecular weight and concentration of the polymers. The cloud temperature decreased as the molecular weight polymers and the concentration of polymer solution increased. And also two series of rod-coil type poly(arylene ether sulfone)-b-polylactides were synthesized by controlled ring-opening esterification polymerization of DL-lactide with a PES-derived macroinitiator in which the allyl group was transformed into an aliphatic hydroxyl group by a thiol-ene click reaction. These diblock copolymers also exhibited LCST behavior in DME, and the nanoscale size of the aggregates increased upon heating.