Connections between various cell types in the brain enable cognitive function. The neurovascular unit is a structure composed of different cell types that regulate neurovascular coupling, blood-brain barrier permeability, and other interactions with peripheral systems. The relationship among the components of the neurovascular unit is complex and difficult to study without the use of in vivo neurovascular disease imaging. In this review, we introduce principles and examples of various in vivo optical imaging techniques including laser Doppler flowmetry, laser speckle contrast imaging, intrinsic optical signal imaging, optical coherence tomography, and two-photon microscopy. Furthermore, we introduce recent advances of in vivo imaging and future directions for promoting neurovascular disease research.