Most small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are known to base pair with target mRNAs and regulate mRNA stability or translation to trigger various changes in the cell metabolism of Escherichia coli. The SdsR sRNA is expressed specifically during the stationary phase and represses tolC and mutS expression. However, it was not previously known whether the growth-phase-dependent regulation of SdsR is important for cell growth. Here, we ectopically expressed SdsR during the exponential phase and examined cell growth and survival. We found that ectopic expression of SdsR led to a significant and Hfq-dependent cell death with accompanying cell filamentation. This SdsR-driven cell death was alleviated by overexpression of RyeA, an sRNA transcribed on the opposite DNA strand, suggesting that SdsR/RyeA is a novel type of toxin-antitoxin (T/A) system in which both the toxin and the antitoxin are sRNAs. We defined the minimal region required for the SdsR-driven cell death. We also performed RNA-seq analysis and identified 209 genes whose expression levels were altered by more than two-fold following pulse expression of ectopic SdsR at exponential phase. Finally, we found that that the observed SdsR-driven cell death was mainly caused by the SdsR-mediated repression of yhcB, which encodes an inner membrane protein.