A silver nanoparticle is one of the representative engineered nanomaterials with excellent optical, electrical, antibacterial properties. Silver nanoparticles are being increasingly used for medical products, water filters, and cosmetics, etc. However, silver nanoparticles are known to cause adverse effects on the ecosystem and human health. To utilize silver nanoparticles with minimized negative effects, it is important to understand the behavior of silver nanoparticles released to the environment. In this study, we compared toxicity behaviors of citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol coated silver nanoparticles in two different ionic environments, which are aquatic environments for developing zebrafish embryo. Depending on the composition of the ionic environment, citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol coated silver nanoparticles exhibited different behaviors in dissolution, aggregation, or precipitation, which governed the toxicity of silver nanoparticles on zebrafish embryos.