To enhance the wearability of portable motion-monitoring devices, the size and number of sensors are minimized, but at the expense of quality and quantity of data collected. For example, owing to the size and weight of low-frequency force transducers, most currently available wearable gait measurement systems provide only limited, if any, elements of ground reaction force (GRF) data. To obtain the most GRF information possible with a minimal use of sensors, we propose a GRF estimation method based on biomechanical knowledge of human walking. This includes the dynamics of the center of mass (CoM) during steady human gait resembling the oscillatory behaviors of a mass-spring system. Available measurement data were incorporated into a spring-loaded inverted pendulum with translating pivot. The spring stiffness and simulation parameters were tuned to match, as accurately as possible, the available data and oscillatory characteristics of walking. Our results showed that the model simulation estimated reasonably well the unmeasured GRF. Using the vertical GRF and CoP profile for gait speeds ranging from 0.93 to 1.89 m/s, the anterior-posterior (A-P) GRF was estimated and resulted in an average correlation coefficient of R = 0.982 +/- 0.009. Even when the ground contact timing and gait speed information were alone available, our method estimated GRFs resulting in R = 0.969 +/- 0.022 for the A-P and R = 0.891 0.101 for the vertical GRFs. This research demonstrates that the biomechanical knowledge of human walking, such as inherited oscillatory characteristics of the CoM, can be used to gain unmeasured information regarding human gait dynamics. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.