Various approaches have been proposed to predict the ash deposition (slagging and fouling) propensity of coal, which is essential in maintaining high efficiency and preventing corrosion/damage of a coal-fired boiler. The common method is to establish an index of the ash deposition propensity based on elementary coal composition and advanced characterization of ash properties, which is readily applicable to design, operation and maintenance of coal-fired boilers. Although many indexes have been developed for this purpose, their validity is still not satisfactory in actual applications to particular coal types or operating conditions. This paper reviews the status of predictive approaches for the ash deposition propensity, and assesses the performance of existing indexes by comparing the results for selected coals. This work will contribute to the development of a comprehensive and practical method for prediction of the ash deposition propensity.