Enhancing the fluorescence intensity of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) in case of color-conversion type QD light-emitting devices (LEDs) is very significant due to the large loss of QDs and their quantum yields during fabrication processes, such as patterning and spin-coating, and can therefore improve cost-effectiveness. Understanding the enhancement process is crucial for the design of metallic nanostructure substrates for enhancing the fluorescence of colloidal QDs. In this work, improved color conversion of colloidal green and red QDs coupled with aluminum (Al) and silver (Ag) nanodisk (ND) arrays designed by in-depth systematic finite-difference time domain simulations of excitation, spontaneous emission, and quantum efficiency enhancement is reported. Calculated results of the overall photoluminescence enhancement factor in the substrate of 500 × 500 µm2 size are 2.37-fold and 2.82-fold for Al ND-green QD and Ag ND-red QD structures, respectively. Experimental results are in good agreement, showing 2.26-fold and 2.66-fold enhancements for Al ND and Ag ND structures. Possible uses of plasmonics in cases such as white LED and total color conversion for possible display applications are discussed. The theoretical treatments and experiments shown in this work are a proof of principle for future studies of plasmonic enhancement of various light-emitting materials.