Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ( KSHV) is associated with formation of Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and primary effusion lymphoma. Replication and transcription activator (RTA) genes are expressed upon reactivation of KSHV, which displays a biphasic life cycle consisting of latent and lytic replication phases. RTA protein expression results in KSHV genome amplification and successive viral lytic gene expression. Transcriptional activity of viral lytic genes is regulated through epigenetic modifications. In Raji cells latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus, various modifications, such as acetylation and methylation, have been identified at specific lysine residues in histone H4 during viral reactivation, supporting the theory that expression of specific lytic genes is controlled by histone modification processes. Data obtained from chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed alterations in the H4K8ac and H4K20me3 levels at lytic gene promoters during reactivation. Our results indicate that H4K20me3 is associated with the maintenance of latency, while H4K8ac contributes to KSHV reactivation in infected TREx BCBL-1 RTA cells.