We present a novel hyperspectral image reconstruction algorithm, which overcomes the long-standing tradeoff between spectral accuracy and spatial resolution in existing compressive imaging approaches. Our method consists of two steps: First, we learn nonlinear spectral representations from realworld hyperspectral datasets; for this, we build a convolutional autoencoder, which allows reconstructing its own input through its encoder and decoder networks. Second, we introduce a novel optimization method, which jointly regularizes the fidelity of the learned nonlinear spectral representations and the sparsity of gradients in the spatial domain, by means of our new fidelity prior. Our technique can be applied to any existing compressive imaging architecture, and has been thoroughly tested both in simulation, and by building a prototype hyperspectral imaging system. It outperforms the state-of-the-art methods from each architecture, both in terms of spectral accuracy and spatial resolution, while its computational complexity is reduced by two orders of magnitude with respect to sparse coding techniques. Moreover, we present two additional applications of our method: hyperspectral interpolation and demosaicing. Last, we have created a new high-resolution hyperspectral dataset containing sharper images of more spectral variety than existing ones, available through our project website.