Spatial-temporal ontology is the collection of all facts within a specified field. Using a single individual in three-dimensional space as an example, the data that can prove the existence of the individual is its attribute data collection and the data located by the Cartesian Coordinate System. If the dimensions of the individual were expanded to four-dimensional space, the data that can prove the existence of the individual would be all the information recorded in three-dimensional space in a consecutive time. Spatial-temporal ontology of four-dimensional space includes the combination of an object's attributes, relations, and the change of information. Humans can only see a single projection of spatial-temporal ontology at a single time. This projection is two-dimensional information. The two-dimensional information is then transformed by optical parallax and the assistance of cognitive abilities into information that is nearly three-dimensional. The same principle applies to moving objects. A moving object will form a series of overlapping projections in human brain like continuous picturess and through cognition the differences of information between two points of time can be discerned. This research focuses on Alishan Forest Railway to engage in the study of spatial-temporal ontology and to provide evidence for the study. Alishan Forest Railway is a century-old railway full of history and cultural value. The research is conducted for the purpose of studying topology logical architecture constructed by spatial-temporal ontology. This study will also help to record information of railway facilities for conservation. The study can also be used as a source for understanding and reviewing contemporary history.