A partial genome scan using microsatellite markers was conducted in order to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 10 fatty acid contents of the backfat in a pig reference population. Two QTLs were found by studying SSC1, SSC13, and SSC18, where QTLs had already been identified for backfat thickness. A QTL was located between marker loci S0113 and SW974 on chromosome 1; this QTL was only significantly detected (P < 0.05) for linoleic acid. The other QTL was discovered between markers S0062 and S0120 on chromosome 18, and its significance only showed (P < 0.05) for myristic acid. The two QTLs mapped to the same location as the backfat thickness QTL. A third of the phenotypic variation was explained for linoleic acid by the QTL on chromosome 1, and a quarter for myristic acid by the QTL on chromosome 18. Further studies on fine mapping and positional comparative candidate gene analyses will be the next step toward a better understanding of the genetic architecture of fatty acid contents.