The synthesis of (discrete) Complexity Theory with Recursive Analysis provides a quantitative algorithmic foundation to calculations over real numbers, sequences, and functions by approximation up to prescribable absolute error 1/2(n) (roughly corresponding to n binary digits after the radix point). In this sense Friedman and Ko have shown the seemingly simple operators of maximization and integration 'complete' for the standard complexity classes NP and #P - even when restricted to smooth (=e(infinity)) arguments. Analytic polynomial-time computable functions on the other hand are known to get mapped to polynomial-time computable functions: non-uniformly, that is, disregarding dependences other than on the output precision n.
The present work investigates the uniform parameterized complexity of natural operators A on subclasses of smooth functions: evaluation, pointwise addition and multiplication, (iterated) differentiation, integration, and maximization. We identify natural integer parameters k = k(f) which, when given as enrichment to approximations to the function argument f, permit to computably produce approximations to A(f); and we explore the asymptotic worst-case running time sufficient and necessary for such computations in terms of the output precision n and said k.
It turns out that Maurice Gevrey's 1918 classical hierarchy climbing from analytic to (just below) smooth functions provides for a quantitative gauge of the uniform computational complexity of maximization and integration that, non-uniformly, exhibits the phase transition from tractable (i.e. polynomial-time) to intractable (in the sense of NP-'hardness'). Our proof methods involve Hard Analysis, Approximation Theory, and an adaptation of Information-Based Complexity to the bit model. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.