Harvesting the ambient mechanical energy that is abundant in the living environment is a green technology which can allow us to obtain an eco-friendly and sustainable form of energy. Here, we report a powder-based triboelectric nanogenerator (P-TENG) using polytetrafluoroethylene powder as a freestanding triboelectric layer. By employing powder, which has fluid-like characteristics, the device is able to harvest random vibrational energy from all directions and can be fabricated regardless of the size or shape of its container. Notably, this device shows excellent durability against mechanical friction and immunity against humidity. It is also capable of powering 240 green LEDs and charging a commercial energy-harvesting battery. The P-TENG is expected to be applicable as an energy harvester in self-powered systems for the upcoming Internet-of-Things era.