Spontaneous, Defect-Free Kinking via Capillary Instability during Vapor-Liquid-Solid Nanowire Growth

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Kinking, a common anomaly in nanowire (NW) vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth, represents a sudden change of the wire's axial growth orientation. This study focuses on defect-free kinking during germanium NW VLS growth, after nucleation on a Ge (111) single crystal substrate, using Au-Ge catalyst liquid droplets of defined size. Statistical analysis of the fraction of kinked NWs reveals the dependence of kinking probability on the wire diameter and the growth temperature. The morphologies of kinked Ge NWs studied by electron microscopy show two distinct, defect-free, kinking modes, whose underlying mechanisms are explained with the help of 3D multiphase field simulations. Type I kinking, in which the growth axis changes from vertical [111] to < 110 >, was observed in Ge NWs with a nominal diameter of similar to 20 nm. This size coincides with a critical diameter at which a spontaneous transition from < 111 > to < 110 > growth occurs in the phase field simulations. Larger diameter NWs only exhibit Type II kinking, in which the growth axis changes from vertical [111] directly to an inclined < 111 > axis during the initial stages of wire growth. This is caused by an error in sidewall facet development, which produces a shrinkage in the area of the (111) growth facet with increasing NW length, causing an instability of the Au-Ge liquid droplet at the tip of the NW
Publisher
AMER CHEMICAL SOC
Issue Date
2016-03
Language
English
Article Type
Article
Keywords

EPITAXIAL SILICON NANOWIRES; FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS; EUTECTIC TEMPERATURE; ORIENTATION CONTROL; GE NANOWIRES; PHOTODETECTOR; DIRECTION; DEVICES; ORIGIN

Citation

NANO LETTERS, v.16, no.3, pp.1713 - 1718

ISSN
1530-6984
DOI
10.1021/acs.nanoiett.5b04633
URI
http://hdl.handle.net/10203/208473
Appears in Collection
ME-Journal Papers(저널논문)
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