Nucleoredoxin (NRX) is a member of the thioredoxin family of proteins that controls redox homeostasis in cell. Redox homeostasis is a well-known regulator of cell differentiation into various tissue types. We found that NRX expression levels were higher in white adipose tissue of obese ob/ob mice and increased in the early adipogenic stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Knockdown of NRX decreased differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, whereas overexpression increased differentiation. Adipose tissue-specific NRX transgenic mice showed increases in adipocyte size as well as number compared with WT mice. We further confirmed that the Wingless/int-1 class (Wnt)/-catenin pathway was also involved in NRX-promoted adipogenesis, consistent with a previous report showing NRX regulation of this pathway. Genes involved in lipid metabolism were downregulated, whereas inflammatory genes, including those encoding macrophage markers, were significantly upregulated, likely contributing to the obesity in Adipo-NRX mice. Our results therefore suggest that NRX acts as a novel proadipogenic factor and controls obesity in vivo.