A polarization fluorescence correlation spectroscopy system based on a confocal microscope was built to study the rotational and translational diffusion of CdSe/CdS quantum rods (Q-rods), with the same and different polarization states between the polarizer and the analyzer (i.e. the XXX and XYY states). The rotational diffusion amplitude showed the dependences on polarization of 0.75 +/- 0.05 in the XXX state and 0.26 +/- 0.03 in the XYY state, when the translational diffusion amplitude was 1. The diffusion coefficients of the Q-rods were found based on their translational and rotational diffusion times in the two polarization states, in solutions with viscosity ranging from 0.9 to 6.9 cP. The translational and rotational diffusion coefficients ranged from 1.5x10(-11) to 2.6x10(-12) m(2) s(-1) and from 2.9x10(5) to 5.6x10(4) s(-1), respectively.