A new core design concept for multi-purpose research reactors is presented. New concept cores using MTR (Materials Testing Reactor) type fuel are constructed with the edge trimmed in-core irradiation hole. Conventional research reactors have core configurations with a constant assembly pitch. Sizes of in-core irradiation holes are limited to a multiple size of fuel assembly. The new concept enables a core configuration to have different sizes of in-core irradiation holes using the same size of fuel assembly. Two types of cores for multi-purpose research reactors are constructed and the performance results using MCNP calculation are compared. The new compact core for utilizing mainly beam tubes has a larger in-core irradiation hole and gives higher thermal neutron flux at the hole. The maximum thermal flux at the reflector region is almost the same. The new large core for utilizing in-core irradiation holes has small and large holes, while the conventional core has holes of the same size. The small hole is useful for high fast neutron flux and the large hole is useful for high thermal neutron flux. Compared to the conventional cores, the new cores use a smaller fuel assembly, which leads to enhanced safety at a high coolant speed for high power density. Two types of fuel plates are required for the conventional cores, but only one type of fuel plate will do for the new cores. This new design concept gives us several advantages and will be very useful for core design of multi-purpose research reactors.